Saturday, August 24, 2019
Global Leadership Development - Essay Example Wyman enumerates some of the traits that a global leader should possess(2007). He mentions that a global leader should foster growth on a global basis(Wyman, 2007). Moreover, it is essential that he understands the different cultures and must have language skills. Since most organizations now have offices and branches around the world, the global leader must be competent enough to deal with employees of different nationalities. They must be flexible enough to be able to relate with their employees with diverse ages, culture, behaviors, and beliefs. Wyman also stressed that global leaders must think beyond boundaries (2007). Furthermore, they must be able to manage people even if they do not deal with them face to face.Aside from understanding his employees, a global leader must also think the way his worldwide customers do. He must appreciate the needs and wants of his customers who come from various regions.The challenge surrounding the issue of finding global leaders is that some o f these leadersÃ¢â¬â¢ capabilities do not necessarily match Ã¢â¬Å"the current emerging business requirementsÃ¢â¬ of their organizations(Wyman, 2007). Another key issue in global leadership development is how to fill the pipeline and identify employees who can work from a global perspective(Wyman, 2007). Organizations must develop the global leadership skills of their employees. Some developmental tools that companies may adopt are assigning them to different jobs, mentoring or coaching, offering international business travel, etc.xposing them to experiential or action learning assignments, introducing international cross-functional teams, giving short and long-term expat assignments, providing language and cross-cultural training and implementing a 360-degree feedback system (Callison, 2011). The challenge faced in this issue is that if these employees are not developed soon, there might be a shortage of leadership talent; thus, creating problems in meeting future business requirements (Wyman, 2007). The third issue confronting global leadership development is the management of the process of gathering relevant information on pote ntial leaders and making decisions on the new roles that will be given to them and the organizational support that will be provided them (Smith, 2007). According to Smith, there are three factors that will help manage the process, namely: 1) executive engagement and ownership; 2) process resonance and simplicity; and 3) the right tools (2007). The executive engagement and ownership means that all executives of the company should be supportive of the program for developing global leaders. Process resonance and simplicity suggests that talent management must be simple and must be aligned with the organizational culture. On the other hand, the right tools refer to the technology utilized in the management of data related to decisions pertaining to the future leaders. The challenge in this issue is top managementÃ¢â¬â¢s all out support for the development of leaders within the organization. They should not be threatened by the existence of potential leaders and therefore must be willi ng to reinforce the development process of these future leaders.
Posted by k at 12:26 PM
Friday, August 23, 2019
Conflict Assesment - Assignment Example ing the two sets of results, my personal score in the negative conflict management style such as avoidance and competition was lower than the score on the positive conflict management styles such as accommodation, compromise, and collaboration. On the other hand, my score as given by the person from family, who is my cousin, was quite the same as mine. The analysis from my supervisor is quite deflecting from my score. My supervisor felt that it is not common for me to deflect from conflict, hence, I am cooperative and also assertive. The score from my cousin that was similar to mine confirmed my love for deflecting from confrontation which did not really surprise me. The fact a member of the family had a great opinion regarding avoidance; it means I have a lot to work on regarding my conflict resolution. Regarding competition, it was a fair score because the scores of the two people did not deviate much from my score. I am an averagely competitive person, hence their opinion did not surprise. This means I am averagely aggressive compared to being assertive and I often like winning arguments at the expense of other people (Wilmot & Hocker, 2013). My score on accommodation was higher than that of my supervisor, although it is the same as that of my family member. This means that my supervisor does not think that my conflict management style includes giving up my personal interest for the creation of harmony and peace (Wilmot & Hocker, 2013). This surprised me greatly because I regard myself as quite selfless. Regarding compromise I gave myself a higher score than my supervisor, but the same as my cousin. This means that my supervisor thinks that I do not usually make a concession that results in an outcome that is mutually agreeable. This was surprising because I love creating peace and being considerate. My collaboration score was the same as the member of my family and was higher than that of my supervisor. Collaboration entails cooperation to facilitate a
Posted by k at 2:59 PM
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Essay on Australian Culture Essay The composers of In SydneyÃ¢â¬â¢s Suburbs, An Endless Summer and Love Letter: McIverÃ¢â¬â¢s Baths have helped me to further understand Australian culture by using a variety of language devices and techniques to uncover the Australian culture. Chris West, the author of In SydneyÃ¢â¬â¢s Suburbs, An Endless Summer reveals that Australians respect the harsh landscape and presents beach culture as a prominent aspect n the lives of Australia. Helen Pitt, the author of Love Letter: McIverÃ¢â¬â¢s Baths, uncovers Aboriginal beliefs in Australian principles and shows that multiculturalism is freely accepted in Australian society. West conveys the Australian landscape to be harsh and rugged, yet respected and valued by Australians. West personifies the land and describes how it Ã¢â¬Å"points like a crooked fingerÃ¢â¬ . The use of the verb Ã¢â¬Å"pointsÃ¢â¬ gives the land an intimidating quality. West continues to describe the land as Ã¢â¬Å"a patch of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s country. Ã¢â¬ The juxtaposition of the two phrases suggests that the Australian is feared but respected and cared for by Australians. This comparison has broadened my understanding of the Australian culture. This idea is similar to PittÃ¢â¬â¢s description of the beach Ã¢â¬Å"which is as curvy as the female form. Ã¢â¬ The simile creates a unique attractiveness, which is intriguing but is appreciated in Australian culture. Both West and Pitt expose an underlying appreciation of natural beauty in Australia, confirming my understanding of Australian culture. Pitt has employed the use of figurative devices that helped extend my understanding of Australian culture. Ã¢â¬Å"You nursed meÃ¢â¬ ¦your swell embraced me in a way she no longer could. Ã¢â¬ The use of apostrophe gives the baths motherly qualities. The verbs Ã¢â¬Å"nursedÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"embracedÃ¢â¬ mimic the actions of a mother caring for her child. The quote also alludes to the old Aboriginal beliefs that the land is mother. This reveals that Aboriginal culture and beliefs are still present in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society and highly respected in Australian culture. In WestÃ¢â¬â¢s article, there are also allusions to Aboriginal culture. He describes children playing on the beach Ã¢â¬Å"under the watchful eyes of black-clad eldersÃ¢â¬ . Both composers display an aspect of Aboriginal culture and its importance in Australian society, thus deepening my understanding of Australian culture. In WestÃ¢â¬â¢s article, beach culture is displayed as a prominent aspect in the lives of Australians. He describes businessmen and how they Ã¢â¬Å"peel off their swimsuits in the beachfront parking lots, towel down and don sober business attire then drive straight to work. Ã¢â¬ The use of the verb Ã¢â¬Å"peelÃ¢â¬ suggests that the beach and beach culture is part of them, that itÃ¢â¬â¢s in their skin and soul. Pitt reinforces the idea that being at one with sea and its surrounding environment is what is truly valued in Australian society. Ã¢â¬Å"I took refuge in your barnacled depths, reacquainting myselfÃ¢â¬ ¦with what it meant to be Australian. Ã¢â¬ Both composers explore the notion that having connection with the beach is genuinely valued in Australian culture, thus challenging my understanding of Australian culture. In PittÃ¢â¬â¢s article, multiculturalism is celebrated by showing the freedoms that we as Australians, no matter what cultural heritage we have, are able to enjoy. Ã¢â¬Å"Muslim women frolicking in burkinisÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The use of the verb Ã¢â¬Å"frolickingÃ¢â¬ suggests that the women feel comfortable enjoying the Australian environment without fear of prejudice from other cultures. The revelation of the carefree attitude towards cultural diversity in Australian culture has expanded my understanding of Australian culture. West also presents the acceptance of a diverse range of culture in his article. Ã¢â¬Å"Families of newly arrived Mediterranean immigrants fetch extravagant picnicsÃ¢â¬ ¦from the trunks of Japanese-built sedansÃ¢â¬ Both composers clarify that people of other cultures and religions are accepted and welcomed in Australian society. The confirmation has contributed to my understanding of Australian culture. By manipulating a range of language devices, both composers have challenged and reinforced my understanding of Australian culture, beliefs and values. West and Pitt both confirm that the harsh yet spectacular landscape of Australia is respected and cherished in Australian culture. They both uncover Aboriginal beliefs that are still present in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Multiculturalism and beach culture are both thoroughly exposed by West and Pitt. In SydneyÃ¢â¬â¢s Suburbs, An Endless Summer and Love Letter: McIverÃ¢â¬â¢s Baths have definitely helped me to further understand Australian culture.
Posted by k at 6:40 PM
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Hobbes and kant Essay The first humans on earth were primative clans that stuck together. As time developed so did the mind of the human. As the minds of humans started to expand, society developed and so did its many other aspects. One of those aspects is the social contract. A social contract are theories that try to explain the ways in which people form states and/or maintain social order. The notion of the social contract implies that the people give up some rights to a government or other authority in order to receive or maintain social order through the rule of law. It can also be thought of as an agreement by the governed on a set of rules by which they are governed. Two theorists that had very strong views on the social contract were Thomas Hobbes and Immanuel Kant. Although both of these theorists believed in a social contract they both had different views on what it exactly meant. Hobbes was a different kind of philosopher that had a very pessimistic view on humanity. In HobbesÃ¢â¬â¢ book the Leviathan, he believed that humans were naturally nasty creatures and needed to be regulated in a society. For Hobbes one thing he also believed in was Utilitarianism, which is the desire for pleasure that drives our actions, basically, the most useful choice for your benefit. Hobbes had a theory that was called Ã¢â¬Å"the state of natureÃ¢â¬ , which in the eyes of Hobbes was life for humans before any kind of laws or governments. He says that the state of nature is a violent place with no lows. In the state of nature there is no business, no account of time, buildings, and there is always danger around the corner. For Hobbes the Ã¢â¬Å"state of natureÃ¢â¬ was a savage place that could only be fixed by laws, there is only peace when there is no war and no war is a place with laws. Hobbes came to the conclusion that humans cant live in groups without law. Hobbes was Lopez 2 someone who thought that too much liberty was a bad thing for humans. Hobbes would say that the Ã¢â¬Å"state of natureÃ¢â¬ is because too much liberty. This is why Hobbes believed in the social contract, a sovereign must be established to regulate on the population. In Hobbes version of the social contract there must be a commonwealth or common state in which all citizens can feel safe. Citizens must feel safe in the common wealth in order for success and itÃ¢â¬â¢s the responsibility of the sovereign to make sure it is successful. Yet another important variable of the social contract is the consent of the mass. You must have Ã¢â¬Å"consentÃ¢â¬ from the governed in order to have a commonwealth. Hobbes does not believe in free will so when he says, Ã¢â¬Å"consentÃ¢â¬ what he really believes is that the commonwealth will happen regardless of the individuals consent or not. But with giving consent the governed must realize that they are giving up certain liberties and freedoms. One of them being that they can not question the authority of the sovereign to rule, cant kill the sovereign, and/or protest his will. The liberty of the commonwealth is altered because they must now live a certain way in order to live in it. The liberty of the governed is limited to the sovereigns view of liberty. Hobbes also believed that humans had reason. In order for this to happen humans need reason. Reason separates humans from reasonless animals. Humans have reputation, humans know private and public boundries, they can persuade and lie, and use that reason to make them a better liar. Once there is a commonwealth man is turned artificial. KantÃ¢â¬â¢s version of the social contract is a bit different from that of Hobbes. For Kant the sovereign must recognize the original contract as an idea of reason that forces Lopez 3 the sovereign to give his laws in such a way that they could have arisen from the united will of a whole people and to regard each subject, insofar as he wants to be a citizen, as if he has joined in voting for such a will. This original contract, Kant stresses, is only an idea of reason and not a historical event. Any rights and duties stemming from an original contract do so not because of any particular historical provenance, but because of the rightful relations embodied in the original contract. No empirical act, as a historical act would be, could be the foundation of any rightful duties or rights. The idea of an original contract limits the sovereign as legislator. The consent at issue, however, is also not an empirical consent based upon any actual act. The set of actual particular desires of citizens is not the basis of determining whether they could possibly consent to a law. Rather, the kind of possibility at issue is one of rational possible unanimity based upon fair distributions of burdens and rights in abstraction from empirical facts or desires. Kant also believed in cosmopolitan right or ideal. Kants particular discussion of cosmopolitan right is restricted to the right of hospitality. Since all peoples share a limited amount of living space due to the spherical shape of the earth, the totality of which they must be understood to have originally shared in common, they must be understood to have a right to possible interaction with one another. This cosmopolitan right is limited to a right to offer to engage in commerce, not a right to demand actual commerce. A citizen of one state may try to establish links with other peoples; no state is allowed to deny foreign citizens a right to travel in its land. Settlement is another matter entirely. Kant is strongly critical of the European colonization of other lands already Lopez 4 inhabited by other peoples. Settlement in these cases is allowed only by uncoerced informed contract. Even land that appears empty might be used by shepherds or hunters and cannot be appropriated without their consent Cosmopolitan ideal is an important component of perpetual peace. Interaction among the peoples of the world, Kant notes, has increased in recent times. Violations of cosmopolitan right would make more difficult the trust and cooperation necessary for perpetual peace among states. The categorical imperative is the central philosophical concept in the moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant. Introduced in Kants Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, it may be defined as the standard of rationality from which all moral requirements derive. According to Kant, human beings occupy a special place in creation, and morality can be summed up in one ultimate commandment of reason, or imperative, from which all duties and obligations derive. He defined an imperative as any proposition that declares a certain action (or inaction) to be necessary. Kants is similar to the social contract theory of Hobbes in a few important characteristics. The social contract is not a historical document and does not involve a historical act. In fact it can be dangerous to the stability of the state to even search history for such empirical justification of state power. The current state must be understood, regardless of its origin, to embody the social contact. The social contract is a rational justification for state power, not a result of actual deal-making among individuals or between them and a government. Another link to Hobbes is that the social contract is not voluntary. Individuals may be forced into the civil condition against their consent. Social contract is not based on any actual consent, one might say the voluntary choice to join a society. Since the social contract reflects reason, each human being as a rational being Lopez 5 already contains the basis for rational agreement to the state. A substantial difference between Kant and Hobbes is that Hobbes bases his argument on the individual benefit for each party to the contract, whereas Kant bases his argument on Right itself, understood as freedom for all persons in general, not even just for the individual benefit that each party to the contract obtains in his or her own freedom. Hobbes and Kant had similarities and differences but for both the ultimate focus of the social contract was for a sovereign to rule over a society for the good of the commonwealth. Both theorist had different views on the aspects of the social contract. Hobbes believed that too much liberty causes humans to be ruthless and unjust in the Ã¢â¬Å"state of natureÃ¢â¬ . And the only way to break from the Ã¢â¬Å"state of nature Ã¢â¬Å" was to get a sovereign to rule and regulate. While, Kant believed in rights themselves and the cosmopolitan ideal. Both of these theorist were respected in their day along with their theories. The social contract is still a concept that exists today and could even be applied to our own country but the bottom line is that there will always have to be a social contract between state and population weather anyone likes it or not.
Posted by k at 10:21 PM
Dangers of Escalation of Commitment in Accounting This report analyses the issue of escalation of commitment to a course of action from the perspective of the pharmaceutical industry. Escalation can be defined as a situation where a failing venture is supplied with additional resources beyond the point of feasibility. As such, escalation carries substantial dangers for organisations by generating avoidable economic losses. The report inquiries into the generic causes of escalation by examining subject literature. Accordingly psychological, social, organisational and project-specific factors are identified as common escalation activators. Exploration into the particulars of the said industry categorises profitability issues, market performance concerns, maturing products portfolio alongside development pipeline conditions as features amplifying pharma companies vulnerability to escalation. The point is supported by real-life case examples located in the appendix. Appreciation of escalation causes allows for development of effective prevention policies. The report suggests preventive measures aimed at reducing the occurrence of escalation triggers, such as challenging the individual and social causes. Approaches for reducing other factors impact on decision-making are outlined in the form of strategy alteration as well as process management policies. The report finalises with suggestions on escalating situations management. Statement of Reference The aim of this 2000-word report is to inquiry the causes and dangers of escalation of commitment to a course of action from the perspective of pharmaceutical companies. This report is to assess the dangers of escalation of commitment to a chosen course of action through the perspective of pharmaceutical companies. In order to achieve the aim set, the paper first analyses the definition and threats arising from the phenomenon of escalation. Next, following the framework proposed by Ross Staw (1993) generic causes of escalation are summarised. Subsequently, the report looks at industry- and drug development-specific escalation triggers in an attempt to identify why the pharmaceutical companies are particularly vulnerable to the dangers of escalation of commitment. Then, escalation prevention provisions organised around tackling previously identified triggers are outlined. The report concludes with suggestions concerning the issue of escalating situation management. Escalation of commitment: Definition and dangers Escalation can be defined as a situation where an individual over-commits resources to a failing venture after receiving negative feedback on its performance. Having an option to discontinue, the decision-maker forgoes rational behaviour and devotes more money, time or effort in a false belief that greater involvement will bring the project to successful completion (Staw, 1981). Some examination suggests that escalation as such should not be automatically assigned negative connotation. Low level of employee commitment is also damaging to organisational performance; background factors might justify over-commitment (Heath, 1995). Another view assumes escalation to be a natural feature of the business decision-making that should be treated as an unavoidable expense (Bowen, 1987). The dominant notion supported by extensive research suggests that escalation of commitment should be acted against (Brockner, 1992) because of carrying dangers of: Ultimately leading to multiplication of avoidable losses; Introducing irrational decision-making; Undermining the basic premise of business activity: to maximise gains with minimal costs; Generating substantial opportunity costs Consuming unrecoverable resources, such as time. Appreciation of escalation triggers allows for development of efficient prevention methods aimed at reducing the occurrence of such factors, subsequently protecting the company from the aforementioned detriments. Generic causes of escalation Psychological Initial research suggested that escalation arises primarily from the natural incline of the human being to self-justify behaviour. Supplying the course of action with additional resources serves as unconscious defence technique: the individual reassures him/herself that the original decision made was rational (Staw, 1976). Self-justification need is heightened if the decision-maker holds responsibility for the resource allocation (Staw, 1981), which is typical for investment decision setting. Prospect theory applied to escalation suggests that self-justification is not vital prerequisite for its occurrence. Escalation is induced by the decision-maker using a frame to make decisions under conditions of uncertainty of results. The decision-maker views subsequent decisions in reference to outcomes of initial judgements in order to produce a coherent frame. The negative feedback on the initial resource allocation results in the subsequent distribution being viewed as a choice between definite and possible loss, or a negative frame. Subsequently individuals are prone to escalation by becoming risk-seeking: failing to accept a definite loss even at the cost of incurring greater in the future (Whyte, 1986). How the decision-maker perceives incurred costs, constitutes another escalation trigger (Garland Newport, 1991). Following prospects theory, the sunk costs effect suggests that costs incurred viewed in relation to the total expenditure induce a negative frame, leading to escalating behaviour. Linked with that, the dislike of waste provides another motivation to supply the course of action further, rather than face a definite loss (Arkes Blumer, 1985). Interestingly, excitement about the project outcomes (Schmidt Calantone, 2002), and sunk-time effectÃâÃ (Navarro Fantino, 2009) aid escalation occurrence. Social Importantly, the aforementioned need to justify the correctness of behaviour is not limited to the individual and applies to the wider social context (Staw, 1976). Maintaining an image of a consistent decision-maker among peers proves equally, or more, important to meeting self-justification needs. The desire to obtain social approval is exacerbated under insecurity of the social status in the group, or in a presence of an adverse crowd (Staw, 1976). In such instances the individual is likely to model his/her behaviour to reproduce the model endorsed by the audience (Brockner, 1992). As the group replicates leader stereotypes that emphasize the need for decision-makers to be consistent in actions in order to be perceived as competent (Staw Ross, 1980), the individual aspiring to achieve consistency with the stereotypical image will over-commit not to distort others belief in their leadership potential, and to reaffirm position in the group structure. Intra- or inter- group competition can indicate escalation. The focus is shifted away from objective assessment of the possible outcomes of a chosen decision onto the motivation to win. The need to do whatever it takes to get a step ahead of the competitors introduces scope for irrationality and escalation as such irrational behaviour is common to both of the parties involved (Bazerman, 2006). Organisational Projects receiving strong organisational support are prone to escalation (Pfeffer, 1981 in Ross Staw, 1993), as the decision-makers identify them with the existence of organisation itself. Furthermore, the centrality of the project to organisational values and its entrenchment in the organisational structure account for the projects being continued despite reservations (Goodman et al., 1980 in Ross Staw, 1993). Unwinding the supporting infrastructure might threaten the very basis of working organisational structure; induce change that is often associated with risks and dangers. The costs of acceptance of status quo are perceived as minor to the potential dangers of modified environment. Maintaining reputation and consistency between values and actions prove to constitute forces inducing over-commitment from organisational perspective (Ross Staw, 1993). Companies having publicly announced success might be more hesitant to admit failure and discontinue with the course of action. Project-specific High development costs and risky market performance of the finished product, the acceptance of failures and losses as a feature of the RD process, and reluctance of decision-makers to emotionally detach from the prolonged projects account for greater escalation exposure of RD projects (Schmidt Calantone, 2002). Low potential reusability (Staw Ross, 1993) of the generated output results in reluctance to discontinue the venture in order to avoid waste. Negative framing induces the perception of exit costs, such as compensation packages as definite waste, leading to escalation. The advancement of the project on a timeline constitutes another threat due to sunk-cost effect (Navarro Fantino, 2009). Projects reaching advanced stages of development would be discontinued reluctantly because of accumulation of used resources, including time, and the perception of imminent availability of the anticipated gains. Industry-specific Escalation Triggers Profitability issues Recent data suggests that pharmaceutical companies are to face decline in profit figures in forthcoming years (Datamonitor, 2010). This can be attributed to steadily increasing drug development costs: the costs producing the final product exceed $1 billion, with as few as 20% of successful product entries achieving the break-even point (Innovation.org, 2010). Estimates suggest that pharmaceutical companies should launch two to four drugs annually to maintain steady profit margins (Gassmann Reepmeyer, 2005). However, due to high attrition rates the overall success of organisations strategy is often reliant on the success of a single project (Kola Landis, 2004). These factors pressurise the companies to continue with projects and disregard arising reservations to maintain profitability. Maturing product portfolio The reduction in new component approvals can be partially attributed to strengthening drug registration requirements. Other explanation lies in the controversial innovation deficit experienced by the industry (Schmid Smith, 2004). Lower innovation figures account for pharmaceutical companies being faced with maturing product portfolio. Consequently, the companies engage in a variety of innovative projects overly-optimistically assessing their revenue potential, failing to discontinue when reservations arise. Eventually, the companies face greater losses as the projects fail to generate anticipated revenues, but incurring avoidable losses (Appendix: Dimebon case). Concerns for market performance The pressure to persist is further reinforced by the need to be consistent with companys vision (Ross Staw, 1993). Endorsing the projects demonstrates consistence with the mission statement; reaffirms the reputation as well as reassures the market and investors on following the profitable trail. However, forgoing ethical and safety aspects of drug delivery over concerns for market performance and cost-cutting proves detrimental (Appendix: GSK Puerto Rico Plant). Development pipeline conditions The specificity of the drug development pipeline further adds to the vulnerability to the dangers of escalation of commitment. The drug development time is estimated to surpass 10 years, with the costs amplifying as the project progresses (Accenture, 2007). This suggests heightened emotional attachment and excitement towards results, as well as existence of supporting infrastructure as powerful motivators of escalation. Attrition figures reveal that escalation is common in the industry as the most projects are withdrawn after reaching the most cost intensive stage of advanced clinical trials that precedes the registration process; or are recalled after reaching the patient due to safety concerns that have been ignored earlier on (Kola Landis, 2004) (Appendix: Avandia case). Escalation: how to prevent it? Tackling individual and social causes Perhaps introduce appraisal procedures emphasizing ones ability to build on past actions, rather than progression of the project. This will reduce managers fear of negative consequences if the project fails. Confidential treatment of sensitive matters, such as personal failures, will reduce the reputation retention motivation for escalation (Simonson Staw, 1992). Consider developing positive leader stereotypes supported by convergent organisational values emphasizing the rationality of decision-making. Furthermore, introducing panel decision-making procedures contribute to preventing escalation by reducing individual responsibility for the decision taken (Simonson Staw, 1992; Schmidt Calantone, 2002). Inviting members of relevant departments allows for assessing the projects success potential from a variety of angles limiting scope for escalation to arise. Ponder developing neutral decision frames by rotating managers in charge of the project so that different individuals held responsibility for initial and subsequent resources allocations (Simonson Staw, 1992). Additionally, foster for emotional detachment from sunk costs by introducing training in mental budgeting (Heath, 1995). Project evaluation and management Clear and achievable targets should be set out at the project initiation alongside exit points at various stages of progression (Schmid Smith, 2004). Measuring projects performance against set aims; assessing the efficiency with which resources yield results at the selected points allows for early estimation whether the project is following the anticipated pathway, thus allowing to avoid greater losses. Consider adopting attrite early strategy (Schmid Smith, 2004) as companys motto. Consider participation in multi-stakeholder analysis projects evaluating the potential value of innovative drug projects at early stages of development such as the consultations conducted within the European Healthcare Innovation Leadership Network (AstraZeneca, 2010). Ponder involving external parties in the project (Schmidt Calantone, 2002). Perhaps engage auditors to assess the success projects success potential at its outset or to devise effective contingency planning. This will ensure objectivity and independence of organisational politics. Consider outsourcing the project to subcontractors to avoid its institutionalisation in the organisational structure. Alternating middle-to-long-term strategy Consider renewing existing product portfolio and engagement in me-too drug developments. This ensures steady revenue generation from inelastic demand segments (Ganuza et al., 2009) and carries less risk comparing to reliance on anticipated gains from innovative compounds. Estimations suggest that involvement in drug-related sectors or focusing on advancement in licensed compounds constitute a potentially profitable alternative (Schmid Smith, 2004). Consider GSKs involvement in healthcare brands as an example. Managing Escalation Suppose the escalating situation arises, consider replacing the project manager or establishing panel assessment in order to remove the negative thinking frame, rid off the potential self-justification needs and assess realistically projects success potential (Simonson Staw, 1992). Consequently, ponder engaging external consultants to develop plausible solutions and introduce other point of view independent of the political and organisational influence. Otherwise, evaluate potential salvage value of the project towards establishing uses other than the initial one anticipated (Appendix: Viagra case). Furthermore, consider whether external financial support for advanced research is available; and if is feasible to use towards accomplishment of the projects aims. Otherwise, ponder engaging in partnership with a company undertaking research in similar compound in order to combine knowhow and reduce costs. Appendix Avandia case Recent withdrawal of GSKs highly innovative and best-selling diabetes drug, Avandia, in EU was caused by the linkages with deaths by heart failures among the patients on the medication (FT.com, 2010b). Allegedly, the company was aware of the severity of adverse effects, however launched the drug to the market (Avandia Recall News, 2010). Estimations suggest that GSK could face between $1.1bn and $6bn in compensation costs (FT.com, 2010a) that could have been avoided had the company ceased the project when safety concerns were brought to light. Additionally, bad publicity incurred after the allegations surfaced resulted in fall of GSK share prices, and the company facing negative profit accounts (FT.com, 2010c). Dimebon case Pfizer has recently withdrawn from advanced clinical trials (undertaken in partnership with Medivation) of highly anticipated Alzheimers disease cure, Dimebon, after the drug exhibited no promising therapeutic results (MedScape Medical News, 2010). The reservations about the curative properties of the compound have been raised at early stages of the process. It is assumed that the logic behind Dimebons miraculous effects was never properly investigated. Furthermore, similar compounds failed in previous trials (ABC News online, 2010). Escalating behaviour in such case could be linked to Pfizer losing patent rights the currently marketed Alzheimers treatment, Aricept and was in need of a profitable replacement. As a result of failure to investigate and evaluate promptly, Pfizer has incurred $725 million in RD costs (the Economist.com, 2010). GSK Puerto Rico Plant case GSK is reported to pay $750m in penalty payment to US government and other claimants following allegations on manufacturing malpractice and failure to adhere to safety standards in production plant in Puerto Rico. The allegations regarding mal-adjusted doses of active ingredients and ineffectiveness of drugs submitted to government programmes were revealed by a former employee and resulted in the company being charged with a criminal offence (Wall Street Journal Law Blog, 2010). Viagra case Initially Viagra was developed as a cordial drug aimed at decreasing blood pressure and preventing cardiac arrests. Clinical trials unexpectedly revealed potentially exploitable and marketable properties of the drug: high effectiveness in fighting erectile dysfunction in men. In the six months following its launch as a revolutionary treatment, in 1998 Viagra worldwide sales have exceeded Ã £300 million (BBCnews.com, 1999).
Posted by k at 2:02 AM
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
This analysis makes no pretences of keeping with the psychological and moral convictions that Heidegger ignored. His structural analysis is simply not complete enough to represent Dasein's phenomenological orientation in the world without considering some aspects which are inherent to each Dasein such as a psychological history and a moral destination. Although speculation as to the reasons behind his choice to ignore such overwhelming attributes is forever possible, leaving out psychology and morality leaves Dasein with no soul. Dasein then is nothing more than a component of the world through other Dasein. One can only Be when one's Being is disclosed by Others until the they is escaped in Death. Heidegger doesn't enjoy the negative connotation of the word escape in the context of relationships with Others, but this seems to be more important as a question of true existence, true realization of the authentic Self. I argue that the soul, the spirit, the essence of Dasein must be explained as well as the phenomena of existence in order to clarify the question 'What does it mean to be (Dasein)?'; Through the soul, Dasein may bridge the gaps of loneliness that occur in the solitude of single existence amongst Others. Psychology and morality provide excellent headquarters from which to launch this campaign in search of the soul of Dasein…How can one's soul exhibit both concernful solicitude and care while experiencing existential loneliness in the face of Death? When looking at the temporality of Dasein's existence, psychology corresponds to Heidegger's concept of already-being as does morality to being-ahead-of-itself, in relation to the prospect of having a soul. Psychology and morality play such large roles in the creation of both the they-self and the authentic self that some definitions are in order. Psychology explains the relationships between phenomena and both voluntary and involuntary behavior patterns. Behavior is the reaction of the subconscious with the conscious before decisions are made and actions taken. The sum of the behavioral limitations of these reactions, symbolically speaking, equals the finite potential of possibilities after already-being-in-the-world. Thus behavior displays an abundant importance when considering Dasein's interpretation of events on an authentic as well as an inauthentic level. It seems that Heidegger shies away from psychology because behavior can vary so much from one person to another and creates problems for his strictly structural analysis of being. Morality is also of great concern in a personal view of Heidegger's Being and Time due to the touchy nature of his use of such terms as conscience and guilt to describe qualities that are present in all Dasein.
Posted by k at 5:43 AM
Monday, August 19, 2019
Personal Narrative - Contemplating Death "Then, just like that, she was gone. I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hold back the tears, and I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think my sunglasses hid them well. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve gotten used to my emotions and I only let it all out when they canÃ¢â¬â¢t be stifled, so you know this wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a sigh-IÃ¢â¬â¢m-gonna-miss-her moment. The sunshine and warm breeze of Friday afternoon was frustrating; dreary, cold, typical-March days are fitting, appropriate for feeling this way, and how nice it was outside was a slap in the face. I later recalled how just a year prior I reversed the phrase A sunny day is no match for a cloudy disposition on a day like this one. I thought I was okay with everything, so what was it that hurt me? She left so easily; she never thinks about how lucky she is to still see me, not because she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t deserve to, but the fact that I am still here for her to see. If she knew what IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to tell youÃ¢â¬ ¦well, speculation is useless. I died this morning on my way to school: the guy behind me tried to stop but he locked his brakes out of panic and only slowed to forty five miles per hour. Of course, this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t what killed me; the trauma sustained by my face hitting my steering wheel as the opposite reaction of my head whipping backwards upon impact was my demise. The road to my college is only two lanes, and often there are stoppages as a result of cars waiting to turn left, since the shoulder does not provide sufficient room to pass on the right. The only way to avoid speeding too excessively to stop in time is to pay careful attention to the car in front of you, something the gentleman following me failed to do. He was preoccupied with the midterm he was trying not to be late for, the source of the stress he had calmed with the potent co... ... you forgot your feelings? If you didn't know they were there or that you ever had them, wouldn't your existence end?" "I don't think it's possible to forget your feelings - you can try to ignore them, but you can't control when your emotions begin and end. And you can't 'forget' them either. Love, hate, happiness, sadness, satisfaction, disappointment...these are not ideas created by the mind, they are sensations you must deal with." "So what, she just doesn't deal with them? She pretends they aren't there?" "I guess so...you see that cardinal up on the top branch?" "Yeah...?" "If you only wanted to see the blue sky, that is all you would see. You could know that bright red bird is there right in front of you, but if you didn't want to see it, you wouldn't." "Just like we choose to see light because that's what we want to see..." "It's just easier that way."
Posted by k at 9:24 AM